Plant Information-Herbaceous (alphabetical)


Andropogon virginicus (broomsedge)

Herbaceous, perennial clump grass. Provides excellent ground cover as well as seed for upland game and songbirds. Persistent in winter.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FAC (Facultative)
  • Height Range: 1 – 3 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Irregular inundation and upland
  • Light: Full sun
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Beige
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: September through November
  • Wildlife Value: Provides seed for upland game and songbird

 

Aquilegia canadensis (red columbine)

Herbaceous, perennial with delicate, drooping red flowers. Attracts hummingbirds.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FACU (Facultative Upland)
  • Height Range: 1 – 3 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Irregular inundation and upland
  • Light: Full sun to partial sun/shade
  • Rate of Spread: Medium
  • Bloom color: Red
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: April through July
  • Wildlife Value: Attracts hummingbirds and pollinators

 

Asarum canadense (wild ginger)

Herbaceous, perennial that provides fragrant ground cover. Can tolerate heavy shade. Deer resistant. Source of food for the pipevine swallowtail butterfly.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: UPL (Upland)
  • Height Range: 0.5 – 1 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Upland
  • Light: Partial sun/shade to full shade
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Red-brown
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: April through May
  • Wildlife Value: Food source for the pipevine swallowtail butterfly

 

Asclepias incarnata (swamp milkweed)

Herbaceous, perennial with pale pink flowers blooming in the summer. Nectar is a great source of food for Monarchs and other pollinators.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: OBL (Obligate Wetland)
  • Height Range: 1 – 6 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Seasonal inundation
  • Light: Full sun to partial sun/shade
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Pale pink
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: June through August
  • Wildlife Value: Source of food for Monarchs and pollinators

 

Asclepias tuberosa (butterfly milkweed)

Herbaceous, perennial prized for its vivid orange blooms. The dark green 2-3 in. long, lance shaped leaves add to the striking look of this monarch host plant.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: NI (Upland)
  • Height Range: 1 – 3 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Irregular inundation and upland
  • Light: Full sun to partial sun/shade
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Orange
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: May through September
  • Wildlife Value: Monarch butterfly host plant; attracts butterflies and other pollinators

 

Aster novae-angliae (New England aster)

Herbaceous, perennial with light pink-purple flowers. Blooms late in the season. Nectar source for butterflies and other pollinators.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FACW (Facultative Wetland)
  • Height Range: 2 – 5 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Irregular inundation and upland
  • Light: Full sun to partial sun/shade
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Light pink/purple
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: July through October
  • Wildlife Value: Source of food for Monarchs and pollinators

 

Aster novi-belgii (New York aster)

Herbaceous, perennial with light blue-violet flowers. Blooms late in the season. Nectar source for butterflies and other pollinators.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: OBL (Obligate Wetland)
  • Height Range: 1 – 3 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Irregular inundation and upland
  • Light: Full sun to partial sun/shade
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Light blue/violet
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: July through October
  • Wildlife Value: Source of food for Monarchs and pollinators

 

Baptisia australis (blue false indigo)

Herbaceous, perennial with blue-violet flowers. Has a shrub like form and fixes nitrogen. Can tolerate poor soils and attract pollinators.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FACU Facultative Upland)
  • Height Range: 3 – 5 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Irregular inundation and upland
  • Light: Full sun
  • Rate of Spread: Medium
  • Bloom color: Blue/violet
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: April through July
  • Wildlife Value: Source of food for pollinators

 

Boltonia asteroides (false aster)

Herbaceous, perennial with white flowers that bloom in late summer/early fall. Deer resistant plant that attracts pollinators.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FACW (Facultative Wetland)
  • Height Range: 0.5 – 2.5 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Seasonal to irregular inundation
  • Light: Full sun to partial shade/sun
  • Rate of Spread: Rapid
  • Bloom color: White
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: July through September
  • Wildlife Value: Source of food for pollinators

 

Carex crinita (fringed sedge)

Herbaceous, perennial grass-like sedge with densely tufted culms. Native emergent with drooping seed heads.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FACW (Facultative Wetland)
  • Height Range: 1 – 5 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Irregular inundation
  • Light: Full sun to partial shade/sun
  • Rate of Spread: Medium
  • Bloom color: Green/brown
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: May through June
  • Wildlife Value: Habitat for wetland creatures

 

Carex stricta (tussock sedge)

Herbaceous, perennial sedge that has very high value as a food source for wildlife.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: OBL (Obligate Wetland)
  • Height Range: 2 – 4 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Regular inundation (0 – 6 in.)
  • Light: Full sun
  • Rate of Spread: Medium
  • Bloom color: Green/brown
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: May through June
  • Wildlife Value: Food source

 

Carex vulpinoidea (fox sedge)

Herbaceous, perennial sedge that provides food for many bird species and some mammals. Can grow in soils with a pH of 6.8 – 8.9.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FACW (Facultative Wetland)
  • Height Range: 1 – 3 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Seasonal to regular inundation (0 – 6 in.)
  • Light: Full sun to partial sun/shade
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Green/brown
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: May through July
  • Wildlife Value: Food source

 

Chasmanthium latifolium (northern sea oats)

Herbaceous, perennial that provides good texture and erosion control for plantings. Attractive seed heads eaten by birds and small mammals. Butterfly host plant. Can grow in soils with a pH of 5.0 – 7.0.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FAC (Facultative)
  • Height Range: 1.5 – 5 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Seasonal inundation and upland
  • Light: Full sun to partial sun/shade
  • Rate of Spread: Medium
  • Bloom color: Green/brown
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: August through September
  • Wildlife Value: Food source and butterfly host plant

 

Chelone glabra (white turtlehead)

Herbaceous, perennial with white flowers tinged with pink. Host plant for butterflies and enjoyed by hummingbirds. Flowers resemble turtles.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: OBL (Obligate Wetland)
  • Height Range: 1.5 – 4 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Irregular to permanent inundation
  • Light: Full sun to partial sun/shade
  • Rate of Spread: Medium
  • Bloom color: White
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: August through October
  • Wildlife Value: Butterfly host plant and hummingbird attractor

 

Distichlis spicata (spike grass)

Herbaceous, perennial grass found in high salinity depressions. Often intermixed with Spartina patens.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: OBL (Obligate wetland)
  • Height Range: 8 – 16 in.
  • Water Tolerance: Above MHW (Mean High Water)
  • Light: Full sun
  • Rate of Spread: Rapid
  • Bloom color: Yellow/brown
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: June through October
  • Wildlife Value: Source of habitat and/or food

 

Echinacea purpurea (purple coneflower)

Herbaceous, perennial with purplish-pink petals and a showy flower head. Highly adaptable. Attracts birds and butterflies.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: UPL (Upland)
  • Height Range: 2 – 5 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Upland
  • Light: Full sun to partial sun/shade
  • Rate of Spread: Medium
  • Bloom color: Purplish-pink
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: June through August
  • Wildlife Value: Attracts birds and butterflies

 

Hibiscus moscheutos (marsh hibiscus)

Herbaceous, perennial with large white, pink, or red flowers booming in the late summer. Seed capsules persist through winter. Can tolerate dry periods. Nectar is a food source for ruby-throated hummingbirds.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: OBL (Obligate Wetland)
  • Height Range: 4 – 7 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Near MHW or regular inundation (0 – 3 in.)
  • Light: Full sun or partial sun/shade
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Yellow
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: July through September
  • Wildlife Value: Attracts hummingbirds

 

Iris versicolor (blue flag iris)

Herbaceous, perennial with blue/purple showy flowers in the late spring. Grows in clumps. Limited wildlife value. Requires full sun for flowering.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: OBL (Obligate Wetland)
  • Height Range: 1 – 3 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Regular inundation (0 – 6 in.)
  • Light: Full sun or partial sun/shade
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Blue/purple
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: May to July
  • Wildlife Value: Food and shelter

 

Juncus effusus (soft rush)

Herbaceous, perennial that often grows in tussocks or hummocks. Seed is a food source for waterfowl. Has a clumping habit.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: OBL (Obligate Wetland)
  • Height Range: 3 – 4 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: MHW and above or irregular inundation
  • Light: Full sun or partial sun/shade
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Yellow/brown
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: June through August
  • Wildlife Value: Source of food for waterfowl

 

Juncus roemerianus (black needlerush)

Herbaceous, perennial that acts like a good marsh stabilizer. Flowers from spring to fall.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: OBL (Obligate Wetland)
  • Height Range: 1 – 4 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Near MHW
  • Light: Full sun
  • Rate of Spread: Medium
  • Bloom color: Yellow/brown
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: May through October
  • Wildlife Value: Food and shelter

 

Kosteletzkya virginica (seashore mallow)

Herbaceous, perennial that has attractive pink flowers blooming in summer. Flowers attract hummingbirds.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: OBL (Obligate Wetland)
  • Height Range: 2 – 4 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Above MHW or irregular inundation
  • Light: Full sun
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Pink
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: July through September
  • Wildlife Value: Attracts hummingbirds

 

Lobelia cardinalis (cardinal flower)

Herbaceous, perennial with attractive scarlet flowers that grow in spikes. Blooms from summer through fall. Nectar supply for hummingbirds.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FACW (Facultative Wetland)
  • Height Range: 1 – 5 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Near MHW and upland
  • Light: Full sun to partial sun/shade
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Red
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: July through October
  • Wildlife Value: Attracts hummingbirds

 

Lobelia siphilitica (great blue lobelia)

Herbaceous, perennial with attractive blue/purple flowers that grow in spikes. Blooms from late summer through fall. Attracts pollinators.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: OBL (Obligate Wetland)
  • Height Range: 1 – 3 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Irregular inundation
  • Light: Full sun to partial sun/shade to full shade
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Blue/purple
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: August through October
  • Wildlife Value: Attracts pollinators

 

Mimulus ringens (monkey flower)

Herbaceous, perennial with light blue-violet to pink blooms throughout summer. Very easily spread.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: OBL (Obligate Wetland)
  • Height Range: 1.5 – 4 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Seasonal to irregular inundation
  • Light: Full sun to partial sun/shade
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Blue-violet to pink
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: June through September
  • Wildlife Value: Attracts pollinators

 

Monarda fistulosa (wild bergamot)

Herbaceous, perennial with fragrant red flowers blooming from late spring to fall. Attracts pollinators and hummingbirds.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FAC (Facultative)
  • Height Range: 2 – 3 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Seasonal to regular inundation
  • Light: Full sun to partial sun/shade
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Red
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: May through October
  • Wildlife Value: Attracts hummingbirds and pollinators

 

Osmunda regalis (royal fern)

Herbaceous, perennial fern. Provides food for many upland game birds and mammals. Prefers soils with a pH of 4.0 – 6.0.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: OBL (Obligate Wetland)
  • Height Range: 1 – 6 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Irregular to permanent inundation
  • Light: Full sun to partial shade/sun to full shade
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Non-flowering
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: Non-flowering
  • Wildlife Value: Provides food for birds and mammals

 

Panicum amarum (coastal panic grass)

Herbaceous, perennial deep-rooted bunch grass that grows best on coastal shores and dunes. Can tolerated drought. Provides food and cover for wildlife.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FAC (Facultative)
  • Height Range: 1.5 – 6 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Irregular inundation and upland
  • Light: Full sun
  • Rate of Spread: Rapid
  • Bloom color: Yellow/brown
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: August through October
  • Wildlife Value: Provides food and cover for wildlife

 

Panicum virgatum (switchgrass)

Herbaceous, perennial clumping grass with a delicate texture. Ornamental particularly in winter and flowers in the summer through late summer. Very high wildlife value.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FAC (Facultative)
  • Height Range: 2 – 4 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: MHW to upland
  • Light: Full sun to partial sun/shade
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Yellow/brown
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: July through September
  • Wildlife Value: Provides food and cover for wildlife

 

Peltandra virginica (arrow arum)

Herbaceous, perennial with inconspicuous green flowers in late spring. Attractive with a statuesque accent. Not subject to wildlife depredation. Seed preferred by wood duck.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: OBL (Obligate Wetland)
  • Height Range: 2 – 3 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Midtide – MHW or permanent inundation (0-18 in.)
  • Light: Full sun or partial shade/sun
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Green
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: April through June
  • Wildlife Value: Provides food for wood ducks

 

Penstemon digitalis (beardtongue)

Herbaceous, perennial with white flowers in the spring. Good ornamental value in meadows and landscapes.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FAC (Facultative)
  • Height Range: 2 – 4 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Seasonal inundation to upland
  • Light: Full sun or partial shade/sun
  • Rate of Spread: Medium
  • Bloom color: White
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: April through June
  • Wildlife Value: Provides food and cover

 

Polemonium reptans (Jacob’s ladder)

Herbaceous, perennial with blue/purple blooming from spring to late summer. Excellent ground cover. Tolerates drought and deer.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FAC (Facultative)
  • Height Range: 0.5 – 1.5 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Upland
  • Light: Partial shade/sun to full shade
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Blue/purple
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: April through August
  • Wildlife Value: Provides cover

 

Pontederia cordata (pickerelweed)

Herbaceous, perennial with spikes of showy blue flowers blooming from summer to fall. Conspicuous heart-shaped leaves. Is of some interest to black and wood ducks.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: OBL (Obligate Wetland)
  • Height Range: 1 – 3.5 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Midtide – MHW or permanent inundation (0 – 12 in.)
  • Light: Full sun to partial shade/sun
  • Rate of Spread: Medium
  • Bloom color: Blue
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: June through August
  • Wildlife Value: Food for waterfowl

 

Pycnanthemum muticum (hoary mountain mint)

Herbaceous, perennial with pink flowers blooming in mid to late summer. Long lasting silver-gray bracts – summer to fall. Mint scented foliage.

Wetland Indicator Status: FAC (Facultative)

  • Height Range: 1 – 3 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Seasonal inundation to upland
  • Light: Full sun to partial shade/sun
  • Rate of Spread: Rapid
  • Bloom color: Pink
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: July through September
  • Wildlife Value: Provides food and shelter

 

Rudbeckia fulgia (black-eyed susan)

Herbaceous, perennial with yellow-orange blooms that have a dark brown center. Attracts songbirds and a variety of pollinators.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FAC (Facultative)
  • Height Range: 1.5 – 3.5 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Irregular inundation and upland
  • Light: Full sun to partial shade/sun
  • Rate of Spread: Medium
  • Bloom color: Yellow-orange
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: July through October
  • Wildlife Value: Attracts pollinators and songbirds

 

Sagittaria latifolia (duck potato)

Herbaceous, perennial with white flowers on a stalk that bloom from mid to late summer. Broad leaved plant. Underground tuber preferred by at least 15 species of duck.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: OBL (Obligate Wetland)
  • Height Range: 1 – 4 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Near Midtide or permanent inundation (0 – 18 in.)
  • Light: Full sun to partial shade/sun
  • Rate of Spread: Rapid
  • Bloom color: White
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: July through September
  • Wildlife Value: Source of food for waterfowl

 

Saururus cernuus (lizard’s tail)

Herbaceous, perennial with attractive, nodding white flowers in spikes. Colonizes large areas. Favored by the wood duck. Drought resistant.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: OBL (Obligate Wetland)
  • Height Range: 1 – 4 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Near Midtide or permanent inundation (0 – 12 in.)
  • Light: Full sun
  • Rate of Spread: Rapid
  • Bloom color: White
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: June through September
  • Wildlife Value: Source of food for waterfowl

 

Schizachyrium scoparium (little bluestem)

Herbaceous, perennial clumping grass with delicate texture. Low maintenance and persistent.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FACU (Facultative Upland)
  • Height Range: 2 – 3 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Irregular to upland
  • Light: Full sun
  • Rate of Spread: Rapid
  • Bloom color: Brown
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: August through February
  • Wildlife Value: Source of cover

 

Scirpus cyperinus (woolgrass bulrush)

Herbaceous, perennial that grows in dense clumps. Persistent seed clusters with flowers in late summer. Nodding. High wildlife value.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: OBL (Obligate Wetland)
  • Height Range: 4 – 5 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Seasonal inundation
  • Light: Full sun
  • Rate of Spread: Medium
  • Bloom color: Brown
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: August through September
  • Wildlife Value: Source of cover and food

 

Scirpus pungens (three-square bulrush)

Herbaceous, perennial with erect triangular stems. Heavy predation by muskrat, nutria, geese, and birds. Flowers throughout the summer.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: OBL (Obligate Wetland)
  • Height Range: 1 – 4 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Midtide – MHW or permanent inundation (0 – 12 in.)
  • Light: Full sun
  • Rate of Spread: Rapid
  • Bloom color: Brown
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: June through September
  • Wildlife Value: Source of food

 

Scirpus robustus (sturdy or saltmarsh bulrush)

Herbaceous, perennial with triangular stems. Moderate wildlife value. Does well in fluctuating salinity. Flowers from summer through fall.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: OBL (Obligate Wetland)
  • Height Range: 1 – 4 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Near MHW
  • Light: Full sun
  • Rate of Spread: Rapid
  • Bloom color: Brown
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: July through October
  • Wildlife Value: Source of food and cover

 

Sisyrinchium angustifolium (blue-eyed grass)

Herbaceous, perennial grass-like foliage. Small blue flowers that bloom from late spring to summer.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FACW (Facultative Wetland)
  • Height Range: 4 – 10 in.
  • Water Tolerance: Irregular inundation and upland
  • Light: Full sun to partial shade/sun
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Blue
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: May through July
  • Wildlife Value: Attracts pollinators

 

Solidago sempervirens (seaside goldenrod)

Herbaceous, perennial with yellow flowers in dense one-sided spikes. Blooms from summer through fall.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FACW (Facultative Wetland)
  • Height Range: 3 – 4 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Above MHW or irregular inundation
  • Light: Full sun to partial shade/sun
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Yellow
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: July through November
  • Wildlife Value: Attracts pollinators

 

Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass)

Herbaceous, perennial shoreline grass. Birds eat seed and the rhizome is eaten by muskrat and geese. Shore erosion control

  • Wetland Indicator Status: OBL (Obligate Wetland)
  • Height Range: 4 – 7 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Midtide to MHW
  • Light: Full sun
  • Rate of Spread: Rapid
  • Bloom color: Brown
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: April through May
  • Wildlife Value: Attracts wetland wildlife and birds

 

Spartina cynosuroides (big cordgrass)

Herbaceous, perennial shoreline grass. Does not tolerate drought. Forms dense colonies. Shore erosion control.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: OBL (Obligate Wetland)
  • Height Range: 3.5 – 10 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: MHW and above
  • Light: Full sun
  • Rate of Spread: Medium
  • Bloom color: Brown
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: August through October
  • Wildlife Value: Provides cover

 

Spartina patens (salt meadow hay)

Herbaceous, perennial shoreline grass. Tolerates drought once established. Good cover and nesting. Shore erosion control.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FACW (Facultative Wetland)
  • Height Range: 1 – 3 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Above MHW
  • Light: Full sun
  • Rate of Spread: Medium
  • Bloom color: Brown
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: April through May
  • Wildlife Value: Provides cover and nesting

 

Vaccinium corymbosum (highbush blueberry)

Woody, perennial with whit urn-shaped flowers in the spring and summer. Blue berries are a valuable food source for many species of wildlife. Only grows in soil with a pH of 3.5 – 6.0.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FACU (Facultative Upland)
  • Height Range: 12 ft.
  • Aerial Spread: 4 – 6 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Seasonal inundation
  • Light: Full sun to partial shade/sun to full shade
  • Bloom color: White
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: June through July
  • Wildlife Value: Source of food for wildlife

 

Vernonia noveboracensis (New York ironweed)

Herbaceous, perennial with vivid purple flowers in heads from late summer to early fall. Attracts butterflies.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FACW (Facultative Wetland)
  • Height Range: 3 – 7 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Seasonal inundation
  • Light: Full sun to partial sun/shade
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Purple
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: August through September
  • Wildlife Value: Attracts butterflies

 

Zizia aptera (meadow zizia)

Herbaceous, perennial with yellow umbel flowers from spring to summer. Host plant for Black Swallowtail butterflies.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FACU (Facultative Upland)
  • Height Range: 1 – 3 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Upland
  • Light: Full sun to partial sun/shade
  • Rate of Spread: Medium
  • Bloom color: Yellow
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: April through June
  • Wildlife Value: Host plant for Black Swallowtail butterflies