Plant Information-Herbaceous (alphabetical)


Acorus americanus (sweet flag)

Herbaceous, perennial clump grass with leaves similar to an iris. Tolerated dry periods and acidic conditions. Inconspicuous green spathes form in late spring.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: OBL (Obligate Wetland)
  • Height Range: 2 – 3 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Near MHW or regular inundation (0 – 6 in.)
  • Light: Full sun to partial sun/shade
  • Rate of Spread: Medium
  • Bloom color: Green
  • Drought tolerance: Medium
  • Bloom period: April through May
  • Wildlife Value: Provides food and shelter to many organisms

 

Agastache foeniculum (anise hyssop)

Herbaceous, perennial with blue/purple spike flowers blooming in late summer. Foliage is licorice scented. Broad cordate leaves are found along the stem.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: NI (No Indicator)
  • Height Range: 2 – 3 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Irregular inundation and upland
  • Light: Full sun to partial sun/shade
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Blue/purple
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: July through August
  • Wildlife Value: Attracts pollinators

 

Alisma subcordatum (water plantain)

Herbaceous, perennial with small white flowers. Tends to grow in clusters. Grows in soils with a pH of 5.0 to 7.0.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: OBL (Obligate Wetland)
  • Height Range: 1 – 3.5 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Regular to permanent inundation (0 – 12 in.)
  • Light: Full sun
  • Rate of Spread: Medium
  • Bloom color: White
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: June through September
  • Wildlife Value: Attracts pollinators

 

Andropogon virginicus (broomsedge)

Herbaceous, perennial clump grass. Provides excellent ground cover as well as seed for upland game and songbirds. Persistent in winter.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FAC (Facultative)
  • Height Range: 1 – 3 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Irregular inundation and upland
  • Light: Full sun
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Beige
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: September through November
  • Wildlife Value: Provides seed for upland game and songbird

 

Aquilegia canadensis (red columbine)

Herbaceous, perennial with delicate, drooping red flowers. Attracts hummingbirds.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FACU (Facultative Upland)
  • Height Range: 1 – 3 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Irregular inundation and upland
  • Light: Full sun to partial sun/shade
  • Rate of Spread: Medium
  • Bloom color: Red
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: April through July
  • Wildlife Value: Attracts hummingbirds and pollinators

 

Asarum canadense (wild ginger)

Herbaceous, perennial that provides fragrant ground cover. Can tolerate heavy shade. Deer resistant. Source of food for the pipevine swallowtail butterfly.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: UPL (Upland)
  • Height Range: 0.5 – 1 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Upland
  • Light: Partial sun/shade to full shade
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Red-brown
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: April through May
  • Wildlife Value: Food source for the pipevine swallowtail butterfly

 

Asclepias incarnata (swamp milkweed)

Herbaceous, perennial with pale pink flowers blooming in the summer. Nectar is a great source of food for Monarchs and other pollinators.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: OBL (Obligate Wetland)
  • Height Range: 1 – 6 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Seasonal inundation
  • Light: Full sun to partial sun/shade
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Pale pink
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: June through August
  • Wildlife Value: Source of food for Monarchs and pollinators

 

Asclepias tuberosa (butterfly milkweed)

Herbaceous, perennial prized for its vivid orange blooms. The dark green 2-3 in. long, lance shaped leaves add to the striking look of this monarch host plant.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: NI (Upland)
  • Height Range: 1 – 3 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Irregular inundation and upland
  • Light: Full sun to partial sun/shade
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Orange
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: May through September
  • Wildlife Value: Monarch butterfly host plant; attracts butterflies and other pollinators

 

Aster novae-angliae (New England aster)

Herbaceous, perennial with light pink-purple flowers. Blooms late in the season. Nectar source for butterflies and other pollinators.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FACW (Facultative Wetland)
  • Height Range: 2 – 5 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Irregular inundation and upland
  • Light: Full sun to partial sun/shade
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Light pink/purple
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: July through October
  • Wildlife Value: Source of food for Monarchs and pollinators

 

Aster novi-belgii (New York aster)

Herbaceous, perennial with light blue-violet flowers. Blooms late in the season. Nectar source for butterflies and other pollinators.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: OBL (Obligate Wetland)
  • Height Range: 1 – 3 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Irregular inundation and upland
  • Light: Full sun to partial sun/shade
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Light blue/violet
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: July through October
  • Wildlife Value: Source of food for Monarchs and pollinators

 

Baptisia australis (blue false indigo)

Herbaceous, perennial with blue-violet flowers. Has a shrub like form and fixes nitrogen. Can tolerate poor soils and attract pollinators.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FACU Facultative Upland)
  • Height Range: 3 – 5 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Irregular inundation and upland
  • Light: Full sun
  • Rate of Spread: Medium
  • Bloom color: Blue/violet
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: April through July
  • Wildlife Value: Source of food for pollinators

 

Baptisia tinctoria (yellow wild indigo)

Herbaceous, perennial with yellow flowers. Fixes nitrogen. Can tolerate poor soils and attract pollinators.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FACU (Facultative Upland)
  • Height Range: 1 – 3 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Irregular inundation and upland
  • Light: Full sun to partial shade/sun
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Yellow
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: May through September
  • Wildlife Value: Source of food for pollinators

 

Boltonia asteroides (false aster)

Herbaceous, perennial with white flowers that bloom in late summer/early fall. Deer resistant plant that attracts pollinators.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FACW (Facultative Wetland)
  • Height Range: 0.5 – 2.5 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Seasonal to irregular inundation
  • Light: Full sun to partial shade/sun
  • Rate of Spread: Rapid
  • Bloom color: White
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: July through September
  • Wildlife Value: Source of food for pollinators

 

Carex crinita (fringed sedge)

Herbaceous, perennial grass-like sedge with densely tufted culms. Native emergent with drooping seed heads.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FACW (Facultative Wetland)
  • Height Range: 1 – 5 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Irregular inundation
  • Light: Full sun to partial shade/sun
  • Rate of Spread: Medium
  • Bloom color: Green/brown
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: May through June
  • Wildlife Value: Habitat for wetland creatures

 

Carex stricta (tussock sedge)

Herbaceous, perennial sedge that has very high value as a food source for wildlife.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: OBL (Obligate Wetland)
  • Height Range: 2 – 4 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Regular inundation (0 – 6 in.)
  • Light: Full sun
  • Rate of Spread: Medium
  • Bloom color: Green/brown
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: May through June
  • Wildlife Value: Food source

 

Carex vulpinoidea (fox sedge)

Herbaceous, perennial sedge that provides food for many bird species and some mammals. Can grow in soils with a pH of 6.8 – 8.9.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FACW (Facultative Wetland)
  • Height Range: 1 – 3 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Seasonal to regular inundation (0 – 6 in.)
  • Light: Full sun to partial sun/shade
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Green/brown
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: May through July
  • Wildlife Value: Food source

 

Chasmanthium latifolium (northern sea oats)

Herbaceous, perennial that provides good texture and erosion control for plantings. Attractive seed heads eaten by birds and small mammals. Butterfly host plant. Can grow in soils with a pH of 5.0 – 7.0.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FAC (Facultative)
  • Height Range: 1.5 – 5 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Seasonal inundation and upland
  • Light: Full sun to partial sun/shade
  • Rate of Spread: Medium
  • Bloom color: Green/brown
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: August through September
  • Wildlife Value: Food source and butterfly host plant

 

Chelone glabra (white turtlehead)

Herbaceous, perennial with white flowers tinged with pink. Host plant for butterflies and enjoyed by hummingbirds. Flowers resemble turtles.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: OBL (Obligate Wetland)
  • Height Range: 1.5 – 4 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Irregular to permanent inundation
  • Light: Full sun to partial sun/shade
  • Rate of Spread: Medium
  • Bloom color: White
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: August through October
  • Wildlife Value: Butterfly host plant and hummingbird attractor

 

Distichlis spicata (spike grass)

Herbaceous, perennial grass found in high salinity depressions. Often intermixed with Spartina patens.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: OBL (Obligate wetland)
  • Height Range: 8 – 16 in.
  • Water Tolerance: Above MHW (Mean High Water)
  • Light: Full sun
  • Rate of Spread: Rapid
  • Bloom color: Yellow/brown
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: June through October
  • Wildlife Value: Source of habitat and/or food

 

Echinacea purpurea (purple coneflower)

Herbaceous, perennial with purplish-pink petals and a showy flower head. Highly adaptable. Attracts birds and butterflies.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: UPL (Upland)
  • Height Range: 2 – 5 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Upland
  • Light: Full sun to partial sun/shade
  • Rate of Spread: Medium
  • Bloom color: Purplish-pink
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: June through August
  • Wildlife Value: Attracts birds and butterflies

 

Eupatorium coelestinum (purple mistflower)

Herbaceous, perennial with blue/purple fine-textured blooms in late summer/early fall. Can form dense strands. Enjoyed by beneficial insects. Grows in soils with a pH of 5.5 – 7.5.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FAC (Facultative)
  • Height Range: 1 – 3 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Seasonal inundation and upland
  • Light: Partial sun/shade to full shade
  • Rate of Spread: Medium
  • Bloom color: Blue/purple
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: July through October
  • Wildlife Value: Attracts beneficial insects

 

Eupatorium dubium (joe-pye weed)

Herbaceous, perennial with small purple flowers arranged in clusters. Nectar source for butterflies and beneficial insects.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FACW (Facultative wetland)
  • Height Range: 2 – 5 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Seasonal inundation and upland
  • Light: Full sun to partial sun/shade
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Purple
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: July through September
  • Wildlife Value: Attracts beneficial insects

 

Eupatorium perfoliatum (boneset)

Herbaceous, perennial with small white flowers that bloom in the summer/fall. Attracts a variety of pollinators.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FAC (Facultative)
  • Height Range: 2 – 5 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Irregular inundation and upland
  • Light: Full sun to partial sun/shade to full shade
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: White
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: July through October
  • Wildlife Value: Attracts beneficial insects

 

Helenium autumnale (yellow sneezeweed)

Herbaceous, perennial with vibrant yellow blooms from summer to fall. Attracts butterflies.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FACW (Facultative Wetland)
  • Height Range: 1.5 – 6 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Irregular to permanent inundation
  • Light: Full sun to partial sun/shade to full shade
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Yellow
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: July through November
  • Wildlife Value: Attracts butterflies

 

Helianthus angustifolius (swamp sunflower)

Herbaceous, perennial with bright yellow blooms from late summer to fall. Butterflies and songbirds are attracted to the nectar. Grows In soil with a pH of 4.0 – 7.0.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FACW (Facultative Wetland)
  • Height Range: 1 – 5.5 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Irregular to permanent inundation
  • Light: Full sun
  • Rate of Spread: Medium
  • Bloom color: Yellow
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: August through October
  • Wildlife Value: Attracts butterflies and songbirds

 

Hibiscus moscheutos (marsh hibiscus)

Herbaceous, perennial with large white, pink, or red flowers booming in the late summer. Seed capsules persist through winter. Can tolerate dry periods. Nectar is a food source for ruby-throated hummingbirds.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: OBL (Obligate Wetland)
  • Height Range: 4 – 7 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Near MHW or regular inundation (0 – 3 in.)
  • Light: Full sun or partial sun/shade
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Yellow
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: July through September
  • Wildlife Value: Attracts hummingbirds

 

Iris versicolor (blue flag iris)

Herbaceous, perennial with blue/purple showy flowers in the late spring. Grows in clumps. Limited wildlife value. Requires full sun for flowering.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: OBL (Obligate Wetland)
  • Height Range: 1 – 3 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Regular inundation (0 – 6 in.)
  • Light: Full sun or partial sun/shade
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Blue/purple
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: May to July
  • Wildlife Value: Food and shelter

 

Iva frutescens (high tide bush)

Woody, perennial that is similar to Baccharis halimifolia but with opposite leaves. Attracts birds.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FACW (Facultative Wetland)
  • Height Range: 2 – 10 ft.
  • Aerial Spread: 6 – 12 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Above MHW to upland
  • Light: Full sun
  • Bloom color: Green
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: August through September
  • Wildlife Value: Attracts birds

 

Juncus effusus (soft rush)

Herbaceous, perennial that often grows in tussocks or hummocks. Seed is a food source for waterfowl. Has a clumping habit.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: OBL (Obligate Wetland)
  • Height Range: 3 – 4 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: MHW and above or irregular inundation
  • Light: Full sun or partial sun/shade
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Yellow/brown
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: June through August
  • Wildlife Value: Source of food for waterfowl

 

Juncus roemerianus (black needlerush)

Herbaceous, perennial that acts like a good marsh stabilizer. Flowers from spring to fall.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: OBL (Obligate Wetland)
  • Height Range: 1 – 4 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Near MHW
  • Light: Full sun
  • Rate of Spread: Medium
  • Bloom color: Yellow/brown
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: May through October
  • Wildlife Value: Food and shelter

 

Kosteletzkya virginica (seashore mallow)

Herbaceous, perennial that has attractive pink flowers blooming in summer. Flowers attract hummingbirds.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: OBL (Obligate Wetland)
  • Height Range: 2 – 4 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Above MHW or irregular inundation
  • Light: Full sun
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Pink
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: July through September
  • Wildlife Value: Attracts hummingbirds

 

Liatris spicata (blazingstar/gayfeather)

Herbaceous, perennial that has bright purple spiked blooms during the late summer. Attracts a variety of pollinators and songbirds.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FAC (Facultative)
  • Height Range: 1 – 6.5 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Seasonal inundation and upland
  • Light: Full sun to partial sun/shade
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Purple
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: July through August
  • Wildlife Value: Attracts pollinators and songbirds

 

Lobelia cardinalis (cardinal flower)

Herbaceous, perennial with attractive scarlet flowers that grow in spikes. Blooms from summer through fall. Nectar supply for hummingbirds.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FACW (Facultative Wetland)
  • Height Range: 1 – 5 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Near MHW and upland
  • Light: Full sun to partial sun/shade
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Red
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: July through October
  • Wildlife Value: Attracts hummingbirds

 

Lobelia siphilitica (great blue lobelia)

Herbaceous, perennial with attractive blue/purple flowers that grow in spikes. Blooms from late summer through fall. Attracts pollinators.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: OBL (Obligate Wetland)
  • Height Range: 1 – 3 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Irregular inundation
  • Light: Full sun to partial sun/shade to full shade
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Blue/purple
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: August through October
  • Wildlife Value: Attracts pollinators

 

Mimulus ringens (monkey flower)

Herbaceous, perennial with light blue-violet to pink blooms throughout summer. Very easily spread.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: OBL (Obligate Wetland)
  • Height Range: 1.5 – 4 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Seasonal to irregular inundation
  • Light: Full sun to partial sun/shade
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Blue-violet to pink
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: June through September
  • Wildlife Value: Attracts pollinators

 

Monarda didyma (scarlet beebalm)

Herbaceous, perennial with fragrant pink/purple flowers throughout summer. Attracts hummingbirds and butterflies. Foliage is gray/green.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FACU (Facultative Upland)
  • Height Range: 1.5 – 5 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Seasonal to regular inundation
  • Light: Full sun to partial sun/shade
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Pink/purple
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: June through September
  • Wildlife Value: Attracts hummingbirds and butterflies

 

Monarda fistulosa (wild bergamot)

Herbaceous, perennial with fragrant red flowers blooming from late spring to fall. Attracts pollinators and hummingbirds.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FAC (Facultative)
  • Height Range: 2 – 3 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Seasonal to regular inundation
  • Light: Full sun to partial sun/shade
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Red
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: May through October
  • Wildlife Value: Attracts hummingbirds and pollinators

 

Onoclea sensibilis (sensitive fern)

Herbaceous, perennial fern that will grow well in average garden soil that does not dry out. Has a soil pH preference of 4.5 – 7.5.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FACW (Facultative Wetland)
  • Height Range: 1 – 3 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Irregular to permanent inundation
  • Light: Full sun to partial shade/sun to full shade
  • Rate of Spread: Medium
  • Bloom color: Non-flowering
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: Non-flowering
  • Wildlife Value: Habitat and/or shelter

 

Osmunda cinnamomea (cinnamon fern)

Herbaceous, perennial fern that can tolerate drought. Provides food for many birds and mammals. Prefers soils with a pH of 4.5 – 7.5.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FACW (Facultative Wetland)
  • Height Range: 1 – 5 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Seasonal to regular inundation
  • Light: Full sun to partial shade/sun to full shade
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Non-flowering
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: Non-flowering
  • Wildlife Value: Provides food for birds and mammals

 

Osmunda regalis (royal fern)

Herbaceous, perennial fern. Provides food for many upland game birds and mammals. Prefers soils with a pH of 4.0 – 6.0.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: OBL (Obligate Wetland)
  • Height Range: 1 – 6 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Irregular to permanent inundation
  • Light: Full sun to partial shade/sun to full shade
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Non-flowering
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: Non-flowering
  • Wildlife Value: Provides food for birds and mammals

 

Panicum amarum (coastal panic grass)

Herbaceous, perennial deep-rooted bunch grass that grows best on coastal shores and dunes. Can tolerated drought. Provides food and cover for wildlife.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FAC (Facultative)
  • Height Range: 1.5 – 6 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Irregular inundation and upland
  • Light: Full sun
  • Rate of Spread: Rapid
  • Bloom color: Yellow/brown
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: August through October
  • Wildlife Value: Provides food and cover for wildlife

 

Panicum virgatum (switchgrass)

Herbaceous, perennial clumping grass with a delicate texture. Ornamental particularly in winter and flowers in the summer through late summer. Very high wildlife value.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FAC (Facultative)
  • Height Range: 2 – 4 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: MHW to upland
  • Light: Full sun to partial sun/shade
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Yellow/brown
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: July through September
  • Wildlife Value: Provides food and cover for wildlife

 

Peltandra virginica (arrow arum)

Herbaceous, perennial with inconspicuous green flowers in late spring. Attractive with a statuesque accent. Not subject to wildlife depredation. Seed preferred by wood duck.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: OBL (Obligate Wetland)
  • Height Range: 2 – 3 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Midtide – MHW or permanent inundation (0-18 in.)
  • Light: Full sun or partial shade/sun
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Green
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: April through June
  • Wildlife Value: Provides food for wood ducks

 

Penstemon digitalis (beardtongue)

Herbaceous, perennial with white flowers in the spring. Good ornamental value in meadows and landscapes.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FAC (Facultative)
  • Height Range: 2 – 4 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Seasonal inundation to upland
  • Light: Full sun or partial shade/sun
  • Rate of Spread: Medium
  • Bloom color: White
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: April through June
  • Wildlife Value: Provides food and cover

 

Phlox divaricata (wild blue phlox)

Herbaceous, evergreen perennial with aromatic blue-lavender flowers in late spring and summer. Attracts butterflies. Tolerates deer, drought, clay, and dry soils.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FACU (Facultative Upland)
  • Height Range: 1.5 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Irregular inundation and upland
  • Light: Partial shade/sun to full shade
  • Rate of Spread: Rapid
  • Bloom color: Blue-lavender
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: April through June
  • Wildlife Value: Attracts butterflies

 

Phlox subulata (moss phlox)

Herbaceous, perennial that provides evergreen ground cover. Rose colored flowers bloom from spring into early summer. Attracts butterflies.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: UPL (Upland)
  • Height Range: 0.5 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Upland
  • Light: Full sun
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Pink
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: April through June
  • Wildlife Value: Attracts butterflies

 

Polemonium reptans (Jacob’s ladder)

Herbaceous, perennial with blue/purple blooming from spring to late summer. Excellent ground cover. Tolerates drought and deer.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FAC (Facultative)
  • Height Range: 0.5 – 1.5 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Upland
  • Light: Partial shade/sun to full shade
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Blue/purple
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: April through August
  • Wildlife Value: Provides cover

 

Pontederia cordata (pickerelweed)

Herbaceous, perennial with spikes of showy blue flowers blooming from summer to fall. Conspicuous heart-shaped leaves. Is of some interest to black and wood ducks.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: OBL (Obligate Wetland)
  • Height Range: 1 – 3.5 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Midtide – MHW or permanent inundation (0 – 12 in.)
  • Light: Full sun to partial shade/sun
  • Rate of Spread: Medium
  • Bloom color: Blue
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: June through August
  • Wildlife Value: Food for waterfowl

 

Pycnanthemum muticum (hoary mountain mint)

Herbaceous, perennial with pink flowers blooming in mid to late summer. Long lasting silver-gray bracts – summer to fall. Mint scented foliage.

Wetland Indicator Status: FAC (Facultative)

  • Height Range: 1 – 3 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Seasonal inundation to upland
  • Light: Full sun to partial shade/sun
  • Rate of Spread: Rapid
  • Bloom color: Pink
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: July through September
  • Wildlife Value: Provides food and shelter

 

Rhexia mariana (Maryland meadow beauty)

Herbaceous, perennial with pale pink flowers that have showy yellow anthers. Attracts pollinators. Has an urn-shaped seed capsule.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FACW (Facultative Wetland)
  • Height Range: 1 – 3 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Seasonal to irregular inundation
  • Light: Full sun to partial shade/sun
  • Rate of Spread: Medium
  • Bloom color: Pale pink
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: June through October
  • Wildlife Value: Attracts pollinators

 

Rudbeckia fulgia (black-eyed susan)

Herbaceous, perennial with yellow-orange blooms that have a dark brown center. Attracts songbirds and a variety of pollinators.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FAC (Facultative)
  • Height Range: 1.5 – 3.5 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Irregular inundation and upland
  • Light: Full sun to partial shade/sun
  • Rate of Spread: Medium
  • Bloom color: Yellow-orange
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: July through October
  • Wildlife Value: Attracts pollinators and songbirds

 

Sagittaria latifolia (duck potato)

Herbaceous, perennial with white flowers on a stalk that bloom from mid to late summer. Broad leaved plant. Underground tuber preferred by at least 15 species of duck.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: OBL (Obligate Wetland)
  • Height Range: 1 – 4 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Near Midtide or permanent inundation (0 – 18 in.)
  • Light: Full sun to partial shade/sun
  • Rate of Spread: Rapid
  • Bloom color: White
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: July through September
  • Wildlife Value: Source of food for waterfowl

 

Saururus cernuus (lizard’s tail)

Herbaceous, perennial with attractive, nodding white flowers in spikes. Colonizes large areas. Favored by the wood duck. Drought resistant.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: OBL (Obligate Wetland)
  • Height Range: 1 – 4 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Near Midtide or permanent inundation (0 – 12 in.)
  • Light: Full sun
  • Rate of Spread: Rapid
  • Bloom color: White
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: June through September
  • Wildlife Value: Source of food for waterfowl

 

Schizachyrium scoparium (little bluestem)

Herbaceous, perennial clumping grass with delicate texture. Low maintenance and persistent.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FACU (Facultative Upland)
  • Height Range: 2 – 3 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Irregular to upland
  • Light: Full sun
  • Rate of Spread: Rapid
  • Bloom color: Brown
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: August through February
  • Wildlife Value: Source of cover

 

Scirpus cyperinus (woolgrass bulrush)

Herbaceous, perennial that grows in dense clumps. Persistent seed clusters with flowers in late summer. Nodding. High wildlife value.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: OBL (Obligate Wetland)
  • Height Range: 4 – 5 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Seasonal inundation
  • Light: Full sun
  • Rate of Spread: Medium
  • Bloom color: Brown
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: August through September
  • Wildlife Value: Source of cover and food

 

Scirpus pungens (three-square bulrush)

Herbaceous, perennial with erect triangular stems. Heavy predation by muskrat, nutria, geese, and birds. Flowers throughout the summer.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: OBL (Obligate Wetland)
  • Height Range: 1 – 4 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Midtide – MHW or permanent inundation (0 – 12 in.)
  • Light: Full sun
  • Rate of Spread: Rapid
  • Bloom color: Brown
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: June through September
  • Wildlife Value: Source of food

 

Scirpus robustus (sturdy or saltmarsh bulrush)

Herbaceous, perennial with triangular stems. Moderate wildlife value. Does well in fluctuating salinity. Flowers from summer through fall.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: OBL (Obligate Wetland)
  • Height Range: 1 – 4 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Near MHW
  • Light: Full sun
  • Rate of Spread: Rapid
  • Bloom color: Brown
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: July through October
  • Wildlife Value: Source of food and cover

 

Silene virginica (fire pink)

Herbaceous, perennial with red flowers in spring and early summer. Ground cover that attracts pollinators and hummingbirds.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: UPL (Upland)
  • Height Range: 1 – 3 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Upland
  • Light: Full sun to partial shade/sun
  • Rate of Spread: Medium
  • Bloom color: Red
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: April through June
  • Wildlife Value: Attracts pollinators and hummingbirds

 

Sisyrinchium angustifolium (blue-eyed grass)

Herbaceous, perennial grass-like foliage. Small blue flowers that bloom from late spring to summer.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FACW (Facultative Wetland)
  • Height Range: 4 – 10 in.
  • Water Tolerance: Irregular inundation and upland
  • Light: Full sun to partial shade/sun
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Blue
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: May through July
  • Wildlife Value: Attracts pollinators

 

Solidago sempervirens (seaside goldenrod)

Herbaceous, perennial with yellow flowers in dense one-sided spikes. Blooms from summer through fall.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FACW (Facultative Wetland)
  • Height Range: 3 – 4 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Above MHW or irregular inundation
  • Light: Full sun to partial shade/sun
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Yellow
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: July through November
  • Wildlife Value: Attracts pollinators

 

Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass)

Herbaceous, perennial shoreline grass. Birds eat seed and the rhizome is eaten by muskrat and geese. Shore erosion control

  • Wetland Indicator Status: OBL (Obligate Wetland)
  • Height Range: 4 – 7 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Midtide to MHW
  • Light: Full sun
  • Rate of Spread: Rapid
  • Bloom color: Brown
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: April through May
  • Wildlife Value: Attracts wetland wildlife and birds

 

Spartina cynosuroides (big cordgrass)

Herbaceous, perennial shoreline grass. Does not tolerate drought. Forms dense colonies. Shore erosion control.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: OBL (Obligate Wetland)
  • Height Range: 3.5 – 10 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: MHW and above
  • Light: Full sun
  • Rate of Spread: Medium
  • Bloom color: Brown
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: August through October
  • Wildlife Value: Provides cover

 

Spartina patens (salt meadow hay)

Herbaceous, perennial shoreline grass. Tolerates drought once established. Good cover and nesting. Shore erosion control.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FACW (Facultative Wetland)
  • Height Range: 1 – 3 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Above MHW
  • Light: Full sun
  • Rate of Spread: Medium
  • Bloom color: Brown
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: April through May
  • Wildlife Value: Provides cover and nesting

 

Viburnum dentatum (arrowwood)

Woody, perennial with white flowers from late spring to summer and blue berries from late summer to fall. Valuable to birds and small mammals.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FAC (Facultative)
  • Height Range: 6 – 12 ft.
  • Aerial Spread: 6 – 12 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Seasonal inundation
  • Light: Full sun to partial shade/sun to full shade
  • Bloom color: White
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: June through July
  • Wildlife Value: Source of food for birds and small mammals

 

Vernonia noveboracensis (New York ironweed)

Herbaceous, perennial with vivid purple flowers in heads from late summer to early fall. Attracts butterflies.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FACW (Facultative Wetland)
  • Height Range: 3 – 7 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Seasonal inundation
  • Light: Full sun to partial sun/shade
  • Rate of Spread: Slow
  • Bloom color: Purple
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: August through September
  • Wildlife Value: Attracts butterflies

 

Zizia aptera (meadow zizia)

Herbaceous, perennial with yellow umbel flowers from spring to summer. Host plant for Black Swallowtail butterflies.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FACU (Facultative Upland)
  • Height Range: 1 – 3 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Upland
  • Light: Full sun to partial sun/shade
  • Rate of Spread: Medium
  • Bloom color: Yellow
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: April through June
  • Wildlife Value: Host plant for Black Swallowtail butterflies

 

Plant Information-Shrubs & Trees (alphabetical)

Aronia arbutifolia (red chokeberry)

Woody, perennial with white flowers in May and red fruit in September through December. Emergency winter food for many species. Grows in soils with a pH of 5.0 – 6.5.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FACW (Facultative Wetland)
  • Height Range: 6 – 12 ft.
  • Aerial Spread: 3 – 6 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Irregular to seasonal inundation
  • Light: Full sun to partial sun/shade
  • Bloom color: White
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: April through May
  • Wildlife Value: Source of food

 

Aronia melanocarpa (black chokeberry)

Woody, perennial with white flowers in May and black fruit in September through November. Emergency winter food for many species. Grows in soils with a pH of 5.1 – 6.5.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FAC (Facultative)
  • Height Range: 6 – 12 ft.
  • Aerial Spread: 3 – 6 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Irregular to seasonal inundation
  • Light: Full sun to partial sun/shade
  • Bloom color: White
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: April through May
  • Wildlife Value: Source of food

 

Baccharis halimifolia (groundsel tree)

Woody, perennial with white flowers in late summer. Poor soil stabilizer. Grows in soils with a pH of 7.0 – 8.5.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FAC (Facultative)
  • Height Range: 6 – 12 ft.
  • Aerial Spread: 6 – 12 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Above MHW or seasonal inundation
  • Light: Full sun
  • Bloom color: White
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: August through September
  • Wildlife Value: Source of shade and cover

 

Betula nigra (river birch)

Woody, deciduous perennial with an attractive bark and yellow fall foliage. Used in forested riparian buffers and erosion control. Grows in soil with a pH of 4.0 – 6.5.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FACW (Facultative Wetland)
  • Height Range: 50 – 75 ft.
  • Aerial Spread: 35 – 50 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Seasonal inundation
  • Light: Full sun
  • Bloom color: Green/brown
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: April through May
  • Wildlife Value: Source of shade and cover

 

Cephalanthus occidentalis (buttonbush)

Woody, perennial with numerous tubular flowers in ball-shaped heads. Few flowers in full shade. Attracts butterflies and other beneficial insects. Will adapt to dry sites. Grows in soil with a pH of 6.1 – 8.5.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: OBL (Obligate Wetland)
  • Height Range: 6 – 12 ft.
  • Aerial Spread: 12 – 20 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: MHW and above or permanent inundation (0 – 12 in.)
  • Light: Full sun to partial sun/shade to full shade
  • Bloom color: White/green
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: May through August
  • Wildlife Value: Attracts butterflies and other beneficial insects

 

Cercis canadensis (eastern redbud)

Woody, perennial with pink flowers along stems and branches. Golden-yellow fall color. Nitrogen fixer. Valuable to pollinators, birds, and small mammals. Grows in soil with a pH of 4.5 – 7.5.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FACU (Facultative Upland)
  • Height Range: 20 – 35 ft.
  • Aerial Spread: 20 – 35 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Irregular inundation
  • Light: Partial sun/shade to full shade
  • Bloom color: Pink
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: April through May
  • Wildlife Value: Attracts pollinators, birds, and small mammals

 

Clethra alnifolia (sweet pepperbush)

Woody, perennial with white flowers in spikes during late summer. Attracts butterflies and beneficial insects. Grows in soil with a pH of 4.5 – 6.5.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FACW (Facultative Wetland)
  • Height Range: 6 – 12 ft.
  • Aerial Spread: 3 – 6 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Seasonal to regular inundation
  • Light: Partial sun/shade to full shade
  • Bloom color: White
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: July through August
  • Wildlife Value: Attracts butterflies and beneficial insects

 

Cornus amomum (silky dogwood)

Woody, perennial with white flowers in late spring/early summer and blue berries in the late summer. Very high food value to many songbirds and mammals.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FACW (Facultative Wetland)
  • Height Range: 6 – 12 ft.
  • Aerial Spread: 6 – 12 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Seasonal inundation
  • Light: Full sun to partial shade/sun
  • Bloom color: White
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: May through June
  • Wildlife Value: Source of food for songbirds and mammals

 

Cornus racemosa (gray twig dogwood)

Woody, perennial with white flowers in late spring/early summer and white berries in the late summer. Very high food value to waterfowl, songbirds, and mammals.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FAC (Facultative)
  • Height Range: 6 – 12 ft.
  • Aerial Spread: 6 – 12 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Seasonal inundation
  • Light: Full sun to partial shade/sun to full shade
  • Bloom color: White
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: May through June
  • Wildlife Value: Source of food waterfowl, songbirds, and mammals

 

Ilex glabra (inkberry)

Woody, perennial with small, shiny evergreen leaves and black berries. Provides emergency winter food and cover for birds and mammals. Fairly insensitive to disease and insect damage. Grows in soil with a pH of 4.5 – 6.0.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FACW (Facultative Wetland)
  • Height Range: 6 – 12 ft.
  • Aerial Spread: 6 – 12 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Seasonal inundation
  • Light: Full sun to partial shade/sun to full shade
  • Bloom color: Green/white
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: May through June
  • Wildlife Value: Provides cover and food for birds and mammals

 

Ilex verticillata (winterberry)

Woody, perennial with flowers in the summer and red-orange berries from late summer to early spring. Emergency winter food for many songbirds and small mammals. Grows in soils with a pH of 4.5 – 8.0.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FACW (Facultative Wetland)
  • Height Range: 6 – 12 ft.
  • Aerial Spread: 6 – 12 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Above MHW or seasonal inundation
  • Light: Full sun to partial shade/sun to full shade
  • Bloom color: Green/white
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: May through June
  • Wildlife Value: Provides cover and food for birds and mammals

 

Itea virginica (Virginia sweetspire)

Woody, perennial with flowers in dense, upright, terminal, tassel-like, white spikes in the summer. Forms small, elongate capsules that persist until late March. Reliable red fall color. Prefers swamps and/or wet coastal areas with soils that have a pH of 5.0 – 7.0.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FACW (Facultative Wetland)
  • Height Range: 6 – 12 ft.
  • Aerial Spread: 6 – 12 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Regular or seasonal inundation
  • Light: Full sun to partial shade/sun to full shade
  • Bloom color: White
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: June through July
  • Wildlife Value: Provides shelter

 

Magnolia virginiana (sweet bay magnolia)

Woody, perennial with fragrant, white, 2 – 3 in. flowers in late spring/summer. Scarlet seeds in slits of erect follicles. Flowers best in full shade to partial sun.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FACW (Facultative Wetland)
  • Height Range: 12 – 20 ft.
  • Aerial Spread: 12 – 20 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Seasonal to regular inundation (0 – 3 in.)
  • Light: Full sun to partial shade/sun to full shade
  • Bloom color: White
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: May through June
  • Wildlife Value: Provides cover and shade

 

Morella cerifera (wax myrtle)

Woody, evergreen perennial with small bluish berries with a waxy coating. Nitrogen fixer.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FAC (Facultative)
  • Height Range: 6 – 15 ft.
  • Aerial Spread: 6 – 15 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Above MHW or irregular inundation
  • Light: Full sun to partial shade/sun
  • Bloom color: Green/yellow
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: February through March
  • Wildlife Value: Provides cover and shade

 

Prunus maritima (beach plum)

Woody, perennial with white flowers in spring and edible fruit in the late summer. Grows in soils with a pH of 5.8 – 7.7.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: UPL (Upland)
  • Height Range: 1 – 8 ft.
  • Aerial Spread: 3 – 6 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Upland
  • Light: Full sun to partial shade/sun
  • Bloom color: White
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: April through May
  • Wildlife Value: Provides cover and shade

 

Rosa palustris (swamp rose)

Woody, perennial with pink flowers from summer to fall. Rose hips eaten by many species of birds. Good nesting habitat.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: OBL (Obligate Wetland)
  • Height Range: 2 – 7 ft.
  • Aerial Spread: 4 – 6 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Regular inundation (0 – 3 in.)
  • Light: Full sun to partial shade/sun to full shade
  • Bloom color: Pink
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: June through October
  • Wildlife Value: Provides food and nesting spots for birds

 

Sambucus canadensis (elderberry)

Woody, perennial with small white flowers in large flat-topped clusters in summer. Purple berries in late summer. Sends out suckers. Relished by birds. Hoofed browsers eat twigs

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FACW (Facultative Wetland)
  • Height Range: 6 – 12 ft.
  • Aerial Spread: 6 – 12 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Seasonal inundation
  • Light: Full sun to partial shade/sun to full shade
  • Bloom color: White
  • Drought tolerance: Low
  • Bloom period: June through July
  • Wildlife Value: Source of food for birds and hoofed browsers

 

Vaccinium corymbosum (highbush blueberry)

Woody, perennial with whit urn-shaped flowers in the spring and summer. Blue berries are a valuable food source for many species of wildlife. Only grows in soil with a pH of 3.5 – 6.0.

  • Wetland Indicator Status: FACU (Facultative Upland)
  • Height Range: 12 ft.
  • Aerial Spread: 4 – 6 ft.
  • Water Tolerance: Seasonal inundation
  • Light: Full sun to partial shade/sun to full shade
  • Bloom color: White
  • Drought tolerance: High
  • Bloom period: June through July
  • Wildlife Value: Source of food for wildlife